06-0 kube-apiserver 高可用之 nginx 代理

本文档讲解使用 nginx 4 层透明代理功能实现 K8S 节点( master 节点和 worker 节点)高可用访问 kube-apiserver 的步骤。

注意:如果没有特殊指明,本文档的所有操作均在 zhangjun-k8s01 节点上执行,然后远程分发文件和执行命令。

基于 nginx 代理的 kube-apiserver 高可用方案

  • 控制节点的 kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler 是多实例部署,所以只要有一个实例正常,就可以保证高可用;
  • 集群内的 Pod 使用 K8S 服务域名 kubernetes 访问 kube-apiserver, kube-dns 会自动解析出多个 kube-apiserver 节点的 IP,所以也是高可用的;
  • 在每个节点起一个 nginx 进程,后端对接多个 apiserver 实例,nginx 对它们做健康检查和负载均衡;
  • kubelet、kube-proxy、controller-manager、scheduler 通过本地的 nginx(监听 127.0.0.1)访问 kube-apiserver,从而实现 kube-apiserver 的高可用;

下载和编译 nginx

下载源码:

cd /opt/k8s/work
wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.15.3.tar.gz
tar -xzvf nginx-1.15.3.tar.gz

配置编译参数:

cd /opt/k8s/work/nginx-1.15.3
mkdir nginx-prefix
./configure --with-stream --without-http --prefix=$(pwd)/nginx-prefix --without-http_uwsgi_module --without-http_scgi_module --without-http_fastcgi_module
  • --with-stream:开启 4 层透明转发(TCP Proxy)功能;
  • --without-xxx:关闭所有其他功能,这样生成的动态链接二进制程序依赖最小;

输出:

Configuration summary
  + PCRE library is not used
  + OpenSSL library is not used
  + zlib library is not used

  nginx path prefix: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix"
  nginx binary file: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/sbin/nginx"
  nginx modules path: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/modules"
  nginx configuration prefix: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/conf"
  nginx configuration file: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/conf/nginx.conf"
  nginx pid file: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/logs/nginx.pid"
  nginx error log file: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/logs/error.log"
  nginx http access log file: "/root/tmp/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/logs/access.log"
  nginx http client request body temporary files: "client_body_temp"
  nginx http proxy temporary files: "proxy_temp"

编译和安装:

cd /opt/k8s/work/nginx-1.15.3
make && make install

验证编译的 nginx

cd /opt/k8s/work/nginx-1.15.3
./nginx-prefix/sbin/nginx -v

输出:

nginx version: nginx/1.15.3

查看 nginx 动态链接的库:

$ ldd ./nginx-prefix/sbin/nginx

输出:

        linux-vdso.so.1 =>  (0x00007ffc945e7000)
        libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f4385072000)
        libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f4384e56000)
        libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f4384a89000)
        /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f4385276000)
  • 由于只开启了 4 层透明转发功能,所以除了依赖 libc 等操作系统核心 lib 库外,没有对其它 lib 的依赖(如 libz、libssl 等),这样可以方便部署到各版本操作系统中;

安装和部署 nginx

创建目录结构:

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "mkdir -p /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/{conf,logs,sbin}"
  done

拷贝二进制程序:

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "mkdir -p /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/{conf,logs,sbin}"
    scp /opt/k8s/work/nginx-1.15.3/nginx-prefix/sbin/nginx  root@${node_ip}:/opt/k8s/kube-nginx/sbin/kube-nginx
    ssh root@${node_ip} "chmod a+x /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/sbin/*"
  done
  • 重命名二进制文件为 kube-nginx;

配置 nginx,开启 4 层透明转发功能:

cd /opt/k8s/work
cat > kube-nginx.conf << \EOF
worker_processes 1;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}

stream {
    upstream backend {
        hash $remote_addr consistent;
        server 172.27.137.240:6443        max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
        server 172.27.137.239:6443        max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
        server 172.27.137.238:6443        max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    }

    server {
        listen 127.0.0.1:8443;
        proxy_connect_timeout 1s;
        proxy_pass backend;
    }
}
EOF
  • 需要根据集群 kube-apiserver 的实际情况,替换 backend 中 server 列表;

分发配置文件:

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    scp kube-nginx.conf  root@${node_ip}:/opt/k8s/kube-nginx/conf/kube-nginx.conf
  done

配置 systemd unit 文件,启动服务

配置 kube-nginx systemd unit 文件:

cd /opt/k8s/work
cat > kube-nginx.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=kube-apiserver nginx proxy
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=forking
ExecStartPre=/opt/k8s/kube-nginx/sbin/kube-nginx -c /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/conf/kube-nginx.conf -p /opt/k8s/kube-nginx -t
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/kube-nginx/sbin/kube-nginx -c /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/conf/kube-nginx.conf -p /opt/k8s/kube-nginx
ExecReload=/opt/k8s/kube-nginx/sbin/kube-nginx -c /opt/k8s/kube-nginx/conf/kube-nginx.conf -p /opt/k8s/kube-nginx -s reload
PrivateTmp=true
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
StartLimitInterval=0
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

分发 systemd unit 文件:

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    scp kube-nginx.service  root@${node_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/
  done

启动 kube-nginx 服务:

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-nginx && systemctl restart kube-nginx"
  done

检查 kube-nginx 服务运行状态

cd /opt/k8s/work
source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh
for node_ip in ${NODE_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${node_ip}"
    ssh root@${node_ip} "systemctl status kube-nginx |grep 'Active:'"
  done

确保状态为 active (running),否则查看日志,确认原因:

journalctl -u kube-nginx
zhangjun            最后更新: 2019-10-12 10:17:07

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